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Re: Carbon dioxide emissions - open and hidden (19/12/21 16:40:20)
    "Recent studies estimate that the global steel industry may find approximately 14 percent of steel companies’ potential value is at risk if they are unable to decrease their environmental impact.3 Consequently, decarbonization should be a top priority for remaining economically competitive and retaining the industry’s license to operate. Moreover, long investment cycles of 10 to 15 years, multibillion financing needs, and limited supplier capacities make this issue even more relevant and lock in significant lead times for addressing the decarbonization challenge.

    In response, decarbonization measures such as establishing or switching to hydrogen-based (H2) steel production can be implemented either in forthcoming (greenfield) sites or existing (brownfield) facilities.4 The latter opportunity requires existing equipment to either be retrofitted or for the facility to possibly be completely rebuilt in order to implement a decarbonized production process. The optimal steps to decarbonization will differ by location and site, depending on the likes of technical feasibility, existing infrastructure, market demands, operating costs (ie, the price of renewable electricity, the price of scrap), and the regulatory environment."

    https://www.mckinsey.com/industries/metals-and-mining/our-insights/decarbonization-challenge-for-steel

    Another matter altogether is the need for stable supplies of energy. Buffering of energy needs is easy in a coal-fired system. Other types of planning are necessary with other sources of energy.
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Re: Carbon dioxide emissions - open and hidden