Personality disorders: a psychiatric analysis of corruption is missing. Why? (26/05/22 19:29:56)
"Narcissistic personality disorder is a mental disorder characterized by a life-long pattern of exaggerated feelings of self-importance, an excessive craving for admiration, and a diminished ability to empathize with others' feelings."
"Primary gain and secondary gain, and more rarely tertiary gain, are terms used in medicine and psychology to describe the significant subconscious psychological motivators patients may have when presenting with symptoms. It is important to note that if these motivators are recognized by the patient, and especially if symptoms are fabricated or exaggerated for personal gain, then this is instead considered malingering. The difference between primary and secondary gain is that with primary gain, the reason a person may not be able to go to work is because they are injured or ill, whereas with secondary gain, the reason that person is injured or ill is so that they cannot go to work.[
"Corruption and crime are endemic sociological occurrences which appear with regular frequency in virtually all countries on a global scale in varying degrees and proportions. Each individual nation allocates domestic resources for the control and regulation of corruption and the deterrence of crime. "
In my opinion the Wikipedia (and I suppose common legal) definition is too lax. Corruption as a huge global problem cannot be remedied to any significant degree (IMHO) unless a stricter definition is applied and spread and - eventually - accepted by the masses.
The beneficiaries of corruption are now in power so many places that they rule over a majority of the world population. A signal about that can be had by adding the populations of countries that are neutral or positive to the Russian robbery-and-mass murder campaign against Ukraine. Another matter: corrupt systems keep all members of the ruling minority can be proved to be corrupt. So if they try to defect to the other side, there is enough evidence to give them long prison sentences.
Religion is of no help here. Their writings may seem acceptable, but practice shows a different picture. Worst of all, at present, is the Russian orthodox church. But I'm sure I could number a few very bad North American ones too. Not to mention Muslim countries and the interaction between corrupt secular power and the ruling religion. India with its Hinduism is no exception.
So - corruption seems well suited for some personality disorders. And perhaps it is wrong to draw the line: maybe it all could be summarised as
"Opportunism is the conscious policy and practice of taking selfish advantage of circumstances.
Although in many societies opportunism often has a strong negative moral connotation, it may also be defined more neutrally as putting self-interest before other interests when there is an opportunity to do so, or flexibly adapting to changing circumstances to maximize self-interest (though usually in a way that negates some principle previously followed).
Opportunism is sometimes defined as the ability to capitalize on the mistakes of others: to exploit opportunities created by the errors, weaknesses or distractions of opponents to one's own advantage.
Taking a realistic or practical approach to a problem can involve "weak" forms of opportunism. For the sake of doing something that will work, or that successfully solves the problem, a previously agreed principle is knowingly compromised or disregarded - with the justification that alternative actions would, overall, have a worse effect.
In choosing or seizing opportunities, human opportunism is most likely to occur where:
People can make the most gains at the least cost to themselves.
Relevant internal or external controls on their behavior are absent.
People are pressured to choose and act.
Criticism of opportunism usually refers to a situation where beliefs and principles are tested or challenged.
Human opportunism should not be confused with "seeking opportunities", or "making use of opportunities when they arise". Opportunism refers to a specific way of responding to opportunities, which involves the element of self-interestedness and disregard for relevant (ethical) principles, or for intended or previously agreed goals, or for the shared concerns of a group."
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