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|Why Norway Won't Give Up On Oil & Gas (01/08/21 20:27:28)||Reply|
Regardless of the growing ‘keep it in the ground’ calls, Norway will keep oil and gas at the center of its economy and value creation of its energy resources. The government and the industry believe that emissions reductions and oil production are not mutually exclusive concepts.
|Re: Why Norway Won't Give Up On Oil & Gas (12/08/21 19:42:00)||Reply|
|Re: Re: Why Norway Won't Give Up On Oil & Gas (21/09/21 22:42:42)||Reply|
|Link to a thorium article in Nature (15/10/21 12:00:29)||Reply|
It seems We have a long way to go.
Sometime around 1967 I read about thorium-U233 as reactor fuel in a Soviet book (English) on nuclear technologies (loaned it in the local library). Fascinating, thin little book.
AFAIK there was one nuclear bomb test with U233 as the fuel.
There is a lot to be done in trying out technologies. First and foremost, I'd think, would be the construction of modular reactors that could be dismantled safely and cheaply after decommission.
|Molten-salt core fission reactors (generation IV) (17/12/21 10:05:33)||Reply|
The Molten Salt Fast Neutron Reactor (MSFR), which will take in thorium fuel cycle, recycling of actinides, closed Th/U fuel cycle with no U enrichment, with enhanced safety and minimal wastes. it is a liquid-fuel design.
The Advanced High-Temperature Reactor (AHTR) – also known as the fluoride salt-cooled high-temperature reactor (FHR) – with the same graphite and solid fuel core structures as the VHTR and molten salt as coolant instead of helium, enabling power densities 4 to 6 times greater than HTRs and power levels up to 4000 MWt with passive safety systems. A 5 MWt prototype is under construction at Shanghai Institute of Nuclear Applied Physics (SINAP, under the China Academy of Sciences).
The GIF 2014 Roadmap said that a lot of work needed to be done on salts before demonstration reactors were operational, and suggested 2025 as the end of the viability R&D phase.
Russia's Molten Salt Actinide Recycler and Transmuter (MOSART) is a fast reactor fuelled only by transuranic (TRU) fluorides from uranium and MOX LWR used fuel. It is part of the MARS project (minor actinide recycling in molten salt) involving RIAR, Kurchatov and other research organisations. The 2400 MWt design has a homogeneous core of Li-Na-Be or Li-Be fluorides without a graphite moderator and has reduced reprocessing compared with the original US design. Thorium may also be used, though it is described as a burner-converter rather than a breeder.
The SAMOFAR (Safety Assessment of the Molten Salt Fast Reactor) project, based in the Netherlands and funded by the European Commission, aims to prove the safety concepts of the MSFR in breeding mode from thorium. It plans advanced experimental and numerical techniques, to deliver a breakthrough in nuclear safety and optimal waste management, and to create a consortium of stakeholders. "The use of the Th-U fuel cycle is of particular interest to the MSR, because this reactor is the only one in which the Pa-233 can be stored in a hold-up tank to let it decay to U-233." The SAMOFAR consortium consists of 11 participants and is mainly undertaken by universities and research laboratories such as CNRS, JRC, CIRTEN, TU Delft and PSI, thereby exploiting each other’s expertise and infrastructure. It commenced in 2015."
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