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Carbon dioxide emissions - open and hidden (19/12/21 09:58:32) Reply
    I was born in a small town where they built a large aluminium smelting facility in the 1950s, and I remember the alumina storage silos (we moved away in 1958, and it took me 60 years to find an opportunity for a visit). I had a textbook of industrial chemistry beside my bed as a teenager (I was lucky enough to have my own room). And it is my firm belief that the politics of decreasing the carbon dioxide footprint of major industrial processes are near impossible unless the people near the top of the chain of command understand the outlines of the processes.

    For a start I think it could be an idea to read up on

    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ferrosilicon

    http://finnfjord.no/en/products/23-ferrosilicon
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Re: Carbon dioxide emissions - open and hidden (19/12/21 16:40:20) Reply
    "Recent studies estimate that the global steel industry may find approximately 14 percent of steel companies’ potential value is at risk if they are unable to decrease their environmental impact.3 Consequently, decarbonization should be a top priority for remaining economically competitive and retaining the industry’s license to operate. Moreover, long investment cycles of 10 to 15 years, multibillion financing needs, and limited supplier capacities make this issue even more relevant and lock in significant lead times for addressing the decarbonization challenge.

    In response, decarbonization measures such as establishing or switching to hydrogen-based (H2) steel production can be implemented either in forthcoming (greenfield) sites or existing (brownfield) facilities.4 The latter opportunity requires existing equipment to either be retrofitted or for the facility to possibly be completely rebuilt in order to implement a decarbonized production process. The optimal steps to decarbonization will differ by location and site, depending on the likes of technical feasibility, existing infrastructure, market demands, operating costs (ie, the price of renewable electricity, the price of scrap), and the regulatory environment."

    https://www.mckinsey.com/industries/metals-and-mining/our-insights/decarbonization-challenge-for-steel

    Another matter altogether is the need for stable supplies of energy. Buffering of energy needs is easy in a coal-fired system. Other types of planning are necessary with other sources of energy.
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