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Sand (12/02/22 19:48:27)
    Building megacities requires gigatons of cement.

    "The total volume of cement production worldwide amounted to an estimated 4.1 billion tons in 2020. Back in 1995, the total global production of cement amounted to just 1.39 billion tons, which indicates the extent to which the construction industry has grown since then. "

    (https://www.statista.com/statistics/1087115/global-cement-production-volume/)

    I shudder at the thought of the number of gigatons of sand.

    I saw a TV program about sand collection from the river bed of the Niger. The sand was harvested by diving - in a river with hippopotami. The sand was t be used in Bamako.

    I've seen some of the environmental effects of sand and gravel mining in fjords close to me when the huge concrete platforms were built

    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Condeep

    North of Stavanger there is plenty of moraine material

    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Moraine

    and - critics say - the inhabitants of those small places sold the ground from under their own feet.

    Anyway - the carbon footprint of cement, and the environmental impact of removing sand and gravel: at some point in time they will need to be considered.
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Sand